There are a number of different sources for prosecution of bank fraud in the federal criminal code. Generally, the Bank Fraud Statute of 18 U.S.C. § 1344 states:
Whoever knowingly executes, or attempts to execute, a scheme or artifice—
(1) to defraud a financial institution; or
(2) to obtain any of the moneys, funds, credits, assets, securities, or other property owned by, or under the custody or control of, a financial institution, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises;
shall be fined not more than $1,000,000 or imprisoned not more than 30 years, or both.
This statute is used to prosecute instances of credit card fraud, fraudulent ATM machines, forgery, or check-kiting schemes.
18 U.S.C. Section 1005 outlines four different, more specific types of banking fraud. The first two crimes are based upon acts taken without authority and imply strict liability; the latter two require the specific intent to defraud:
Whoever, being an officer, director, agent or employee of any Federal Reserve bank, member bank, depository institution holding company, national bank, insured bank, branch or agency of a foreign bank, or organization operating under section 25 or section 25(a) of the Federal Reserve Act, without authority from the directors of such bank, branch, agency, or organization or company, issues or puts in circulation any notes of such bank, branch, agency, or organization or company; or
Whoever, without such authority, makes, draws, issues, puts forth, or assigns any certificate of deposit, draft, order, bill of exchange, acceptance, note, debenture, bond, or other obligation, or mortgage, judgment or decree; or
Whoever makes any false entry in any book, report, or statement of such bank, company, branch, agency, or organization with intent to injure or defraud such bank, company, branch, agency, or organization, or any other company, body politic or corporate, or any individual person, or to deceive any officer of such bank, company, branch, agency, or organization, or the Comptroller of the Currency, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or any agent or examiner appointed to examine the affairs of such bank, company, branch, agency, or organization, or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; or
Whoever with intent to defraud the United States or any agency thereof, or any financial institution referred to in this section, participates or shares in or receives (directly or indirectly) any money, profit, property, or benefits through any transaction, loan, commission, contract, or any other act of any such financial institution—
Shall be fined not more than $1,000,000 or imprisoned not more than 30 years, or both. As used in this section, the term “national bank” is synonymous with “national banking association”; “member bank” means and includes any national bank, state bank, or bank or trust company, which has become a member of one of the Federal Reserve banks; “insured bank” includes any state bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, or other banking institution, the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; and the term “branch or agency of a foreign bank” means a branch or agency described in section 20 (9) of this title. For purposes of this section, the term “depository institution holding company” has the meaning given such term in section 3(w)(1) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
While most banking crimes are prosecuted by the federal government, there is also overlap with the Texas Penal Code for Misapplication of Fiduciary Property or Property of a Financial Institution. If we are involved in the investigation early enough, sometimes we are able to resolve the matter through the state criminal justice system before the matter is prosecuted federally.